An interesting journey for these two. Browder belonged to the old pre-WWI Socialist Party of America, the party of Debs and Big Bill Haywood and Walter Lippmann. Browder spent the war in prison; Ford spent it in the Army. Both men joined the Communist Party in the 1920s. They ran together twice in 1936 and 1940, the latter campaign coinciding with Browder’s legal troubles over alleged passport fraud. Ford was the first African American on a party’s presidential ticket; in 1932, when he ran on the Communist ticket with William Z. Foster, they won more than 100,000 votes. Browder was expelled from the party in 1945 for lingering Popular Front tendencies; Ford was retained, but demoted and disgraced. Browder died in 1970. His grandson, in one of those cheap ironies for which history is famous, currently manages a successful hedge fund.